Oh Snap!

We know you are excited to solve the puzzle challenge

However, for the best playing experience

we would suggest switching to a device with larger screen size
(at least an iPad viewing in landscape)

See you there! :)

Efficiency Points
Optimum Steps
Considerations Made


Strategies & Tactics



> Console:  [Attempt {{view.checkCounter}} - correct answers]

Your Kd value is correct!

Your kon value is correct!

Your koff value is correct!

> Console:  [Attempt {{view.checkCounter}} - wrong answers]

Your Kd value is wrong!

Your kon value is wrong!

Your koff value is wrong!

> Console:  [All answers are correct!]

Your answers are all in the right range! However, it appears that you have not achieve them within the VICTORY CONDITIONS. :(

To help you achieve the VICTORY CONDITIONS, you can download your data from the RESULTS TABLE and reflect upon how to improve your Efficiency or Steps Count with the demonstrator. Afterwards, click RESTART GAME and switch to TRAINING mode to access the Strategies & Tactics section and helpful Console tips to improve your method.

Good luck! You are not far from winning the game!

Congratulations, your answers, Steps Count and Efficiency Rating are all in the right range. Check with the demonstrator to confirm result is correct! :)

If you want to replay again with a new pair of ligand-receptor, click .
If you like this game, please provide feedback or challenge your friends who might be interested!

Remember that these Strategies & Tactics you learnt today are generally adaptable to all experimental techniques!

You can download a PDF summary of the Strategies & Tactics with additional notes on identifying flaws in a technique here.

Try applying them now to another Enzyme Kinetics simulator here. Good luck!

> Console:  [Identity of Ligand Receptor Pair]
- Ligand-Receptor Pair Unique ID: {{view.system.uniqueID}}
- Ligand Molecular Weight / gmol-1: {{view.system.mwL | mwFilter}}
- Receptor Molecular Weight / gmol-1: {{view.system.mwR | mwFilter}}
> Console:  [Lunch]
12.00-13.00: Had lunch at Biochemistry Cafe with friends
13.00-13.30: Began new experiment after lunch
> Console:  [End of official working hour]
You are feeling tired. Output will now have an intermediate increase probability of getting higher standard deviation. You can continue your experiment now or resume tomorrow by clicking HOME.
> Console:  [Dinner]
17.00-18.00: Had steak & ale pie at The Eagle & Child with friends
18.00-18.30: Began new experiment after the dinner
> Console:  [Exhaustion warning]
You are feeling exhausted. Output will now have a high increase probability of getting higher standard deviation. You can continue your experiment now or resume tomorrow by clicking HOME.
> Console:  [Supper]
21.00-22.00: Had mars bars alone in the lab, poor you.
22.00-22.30: Began new experiment after supper
> Console:  [Security guard warning]
The security guard is closing the Biochemistry building.
Unfortunately, you will have to end the experiment now and go HOME.
> Console:  [End of a day @ {{view.experiment.endOfExperimentTime | timeFilter}}]
Automatic lab clean-up by CleanBots. . . Clean-up completed. (wish this was real)
See you tomorrow!
> Console:  [Start of a new day @ 9.00]
Experiment automatically setup. . . Setup completed @ 9.30. Ready to begin.

> Console:  [Hint: How to begin]
Please input values for Free Ligand Concentration and Association Time in CONTROL PANEL to begin. Click START and then WASH to begin the association and disassociation phase respectively.

> Console:  [Plan first!]
Wait! Before you start, have you plan your experimental strategy? Never start an experiment without a plan, otherwise Steps and Efficiency Points could be wasted. If you are not sure where to start, click the Strategies & Tactics section for help!
> Console:  [Hint: Remove background]
Before trying any other combinations, you should set the background value to remove it from subsequent experiment. The option to set will appear after you START and WASH the first trial with free ligand concentration = 0 M with any Association Time input. If you haven't set background after the first round, scroll down and click RESTART GAME.
> Console:  [Hint: Find the right association time to use first]
Two possible scenarios:
i. This Association Time used might be insufficiently long to reach equilibrium binding
ii. Although equilibrium binding is reached in this Association Time, this Association Time will not universally give equilibrium binding when applied on lower Association Time which you might need to sample later.
> Console:  [Hint: Absolute error]
Be careful of the output results in this Free Ligand Concentration range since the absolute error of SPR could take up a high proportion of it.
> Console:  [Invalid Free Ligand Concentration input]
Free Ligand Concentration can only intake a number equal or above {{view.output.minimum_fLC_input}}.
> Console:  [Invalid Association Time input]
Association Time input can only intake a number between 1 to 900.
> Console:  [Maximum no. of plot on sensorgram reached]
SENSORGRAM can only display 10 curves at once. Please CLEAR your SENSORGRAM before you continue. The data in your RESULTS TABLE will not be cleared.
> Console:  [Trial {{view.experiment.steps}} - steps status]
Your steps count is above the optimum steps. In the lab, this will waste precious time and resources. So finish off your experiment, download your data from RESULTS TABLE, and using the framework in Strategies & Tactics section as a guide, reflect on the steps you took and think of how to reduce your steps count.
> Console:  [Consideration made: outlier]

Three replicates made per point will allow you to identify outliers. Having two is insufficient to distinguish which one is the outlier.

Considerations Made +1!
> Console:  [Consideration made: statistical calculation]

Six replicates made per point will allow you to calculate the standard deviation of the technique for both the association and disassociation phase. The answer of this trial will also be 95% confidence.

Considerations Made +1!
> Console:  [Consideration made: sufficient points to describe trend]

You have sampled at least six different Free Ligand Concentration input (excluding background setting). Number of different points to sample is determined by the expected shape of line since there must be sufficient points to describe the trend (e.g. Hyperbolic model in Langmuir Isotherm)

Considerations Made +1!
> Console:  [Consideration made: universal equilibrium time]

You've found the universal Association Time that is of sufficient length to ensure equilibrium is reached in any Free Ligand Concentration input. The lower the free ligand concentration, the longer time it takes to reach equilibrium. So finding association time for your lowest magnitude you would sample gives an Association Time you can use universally at all higher concentration.

Considerations Made +1!
> Console:  [Consideration made: saturation confirmation]

Saturation is confirmed when a second higher Free Ligand Concentration input is used and the resulting SENSORGRAM output shows an overlap of the curve.

Considerations Made +1!
> Console:  [Consideration made: broad sampling strategy]

Although the binding constant of the ligand-receptor pair is unknown, we know that in Biochemistry, the Kd usually lies betwen mM (weak binding) to nM (strong binding) range. Therefore, only by using a broad sampling strategy, rather than incrementing at a particular magnitude can you efficiently find the saturation point and dynamic range of Langmuir Isotherm. (In this case, sample at mM and nM level)

Considerations Made +1!
> Console:  [Consideration made: remove background]
Background had been set at {{view.backgroundSet}} {{view.backgroundUnitsSet}}.
Removal of background is important to ensure any change is the result of ligand binding, not receptor change, especially since background is not always constant in SPR.
Considerations Made +1!
> Console:  [Trial {{view.experiment.steps}} - Efficiency Status]

{{view.experiment.inefficiency_display}} Effiency Points lost!
You are allowed a buffer of 5 extra seconds after equilibrium binding is reached before efficiency points get deducted

0 Effiency Point lost, keep it up!

> Console:  [Experiment Ended]
You ran out of time to finish the experiment. To try again without changing the system, click RESTART GAME.


Days Left
Time of Day
{{view.experiment.timeOfDay | timeFilter}}
Efficiency Points
Steps Taken


Free Ligand Concentration
Association Time

If you find it useful, please support the project development by providing feedback and share it to anyone you think might be helpful.

Developed for undergraduate students at the Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford by Chaiyakorn Srisakvarakul, with supervision by Dr. David Harris, Dr. Damion Young and Jon Mason.
The MIT License (MIT) Copyright © 2016 Chaiyakorn Srisakvarakul